Educational Session III
Saturday, March 15, 2014, 8:00 a.m.–Noon
An International One Medicine Approach to Teaching and Learning: Encouraging Critical Clinical Thinking in the Information Age
Duncan Ferguson, University of Illinois
The Pew Initiative (1988), and the NAVMEC Report (2011) encouraged veterinary schools to be collaborative and flexible in their efforts to educate future veterinarians. In 25 years, the technical possibilities for sharing instructional expertise have grown exponentially. In 2010, the European Union funded the Network of Veterinarians in Continuing Education (NOVICE), a Web 2.0 platform for sharing resources amongst European veterinary schools “and beyond.” Veterinary and medical professional schools face the common need to improve instructional efficiency while addressing an increasingly broad instructional mission. Pre-medical and medical curricula are currently being reconsidered for practicality, interactivity and enhanced use of information technology. For example, the AAMC and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation have partnered with Khan Academy on a contest to develop pre-medical and medical instructional videos with the goal of finding the “next generation of medical educators.” Their model uses video segments <10 minutes in length with the learner at the controls. Where does that leave the instructor? Gambrill (2005) has written, “not teaching clinicians about clinical uncertainty has been referred to as ‘the greatest deficiency of medical education throughout the twentieth century.’” The new challenge for an instructor would be to select modules to devise interactive, if not self-paced, strategies for students to initially address content. The instructor would become a coach, using classroom time for experiences designed to increase engagement, retention, and critical clinical thinking skills. Medical colleges are increasing interactivity in their curricula, and the AMA has recently awarded significant grants to 11 medical schools as part of the “Accelerating Change in Medical Education Initiative.” A common approach and platform in veterinary medicine should also be sought. The cost of medical education demands that we finally begin sharing our efforts, regionally, nationally, internationally, and across medical professions. A specific example of this approach will be demonstrated during the presentation.
Is There Room for One Health in Veterinary Medical Education?
John Herrmann, University of Illinois
Over the past nine years, faculty members associated with the Center for One Health Illinois (COHI) at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine have led the development and delivery of a One Health curriculum for students in the professional veterinary medicine program at Illinois. This session will discuss and update our DVM/MPH joint degree program (JVME, 35(2), 194-8), the public policy practicum (JVME, 36(4), 397-402), the clinical rotation for fourth year veterinary medical students , the One Health seminar for first year veterinary medical students, the recently adopted Illinois Integrated Veterinary Professional Curriculum and the new undergraduate One Health/public health curriculum at our sister institution, the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, with which we collaborate. The session will focus on the challenges of integrating One Health concepts into the general veterinary medical curriculum, as well as successes and failures of collaborations within and across campuses, with local health departments and with the medical community.
Using One Health Core Competencies to Transform Veterinary Medical Education
Carol Rubin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Rebekah Kunkel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Debra Olson, University of Minnesota
William Hueston, University of Minnesota
Felicia Nutter, Tufts University
Core competencies are knowledge and skills that professionals need to be successful within a specific discipline. However, the disease threats of the 21st century require a veterinary medical workforce trained to tackle interdisciplinary challenges. Four separate workgroups have independently developed the core competencies required by One Health professionals working at the intersection of veterinary medicine, public health, human medicine, and environmental health. Each workgroup used a different approach to identify One Health core competencies. The Stone Mountain Meeting Training Workgroup identified core competencies for three levels of One Health professionals—national policy leaders, program/project managers, and field/entry level workers. The Emerging Pandemic Threats Program’s RESPOND Initiative Workgroup developed a set of flexible subdomains to allow the competencies to be tailored to organizational and individual needs. The Bellagio Working Group identified competencies for One Health leadership and later outlined indicators for different levels of proficiency. A synthesis meeting in Rome reviewed nine existing competency frameworks, including the initiatives mentioned above and other health professions, to define an overarching set of One Health core competencies.
Despite being developed independently, each initiative identified similar core competency domains. Core competencies could be classified into the categories of Management, Communication, Values and Ethics, Collaboration, Systems Thinking, Leadership, Culture and Beliefs, and Roles and Responsibilities. This consistency suggests that these core competencies represent important skills for One Health professionals and should be considered during the development of future training programs. Establishing a set of core competencies is the first step towards preparing veterinary health professionals to operate within an interdisciplinary context. These competencies will be used to identify gaps in existing One Health training programs and guide development of new training programs. By training professionals in these skills, the workforce will be prepared to tackle the One Health challenges of the forthcoming decade.
Integration of One Health into Undergraduate and Graduate Education
Marcy Souza, University of Tennessee
Merrideth Holub, Texas A&M University
Different strategies can be used to incorporate One Health into undergraduate and graduate education. Due to the transdisciplinary basis, careful planning is needed to include real-life examples of One Health research, education, and outreach endeavors from different fields of study. Additionally, recruitment of students should be appropriately timed to provide relevance and guidance to their future fields of study. The authors will present their experiences of delivery of undergraduate and graduate courses that focus on One Health curriculum. Alternative methods used to enhance the experiences of the students included creating a learning community, completing service learning projects, and taking educational field trips to local community organizations. More traditional methods including lecture, discussion, article review, and various topic presentations by students were also utilized.
A Global Reach for One Health at Tufts University: Technology, Curriculum, Innovation
Mark Bailey, Tufts University
Gretchen Kaufman, Washington State University
Melissa Mazan, Tufts University
Diafuka Saila-Ngita, Tufts University
Alison Robbins, Tufts University
This panel will demonstrate One Health in action at Tufts University by briefly discussing four distinct but jointly themed and interrelated approaches to One Health, describing the challenges and opportunities. The Tufts University Sciences Knowledgebase, TUSK, enterprise educational software, was developed in the Tufts Health Sciences Library to share educational content and applications across the health sciences schools. This comprehensive open source software is being shared globally with schools in the US, Africa, India, and Saudi Arabia. Conservation medicine, an emerging One Health field, incorporates tools and perspectives of different scientific and health professions to solve complex global health problems occurring at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment. A professional one-year Masters program was developed at Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine (TCSVM) to educate graduate students from various backgrounds in the skills and knowledge needed to work across disciplines relevant to conservation medicine. The Patients Without Borders program uses distance learning to develop expertise and understanding of the global context of veterinary medicine for working equids in a developing country, Morocco. The project’s goal is to promote internationalization of the TCSVM curriculum so that students can acquire a set of intellectual skills for practice of international veterinary medicine and an awareness of the working animal perspective and understanding of their importance to the culture and economy of the country. Finally, through our work under RESPOND in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tufts and DRC faculty worked collaboratively to create a working definition of epidemiology competencies expected of all health professionals and focused on the importance of facilitating co-teaching in epidemiology across disciplines in order to provide students with a One Health perspective. Collaboratively developed materials can then be linked to One Health competencies and shared through TUSK which is installed in two schools in the DRC.
A Trans-University Approach for Communicating One Health Concepts to Students and the Public
Suzanne Kennedy-Stoskopf, North Carolina State University
Faculty from North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Duke University cooperatively developed and teach a One Health course for graduate students in Global Health, Environmental Sciences and Comparative Biomedical Sciences; veterinary students; medical students; and pre-professional students. The one semester graduate course is taught at the North Carolina Biotechnology Center (NCBC) in Research Triangle Park (RTP) as part of their Intellectual Exchange Groups (IEG) program. The One Health IEG is coordinated by the North Carolina One Health Collaborative (NC OHC) that includes professionals from many public and private universities in the area, diverse companies located in RTP, federal agencies (e.g. NIEHS, EPA), and state agencies related to Agriculture, Emergency Preparedness, and Public Health. The diversity of people that are the NC OHC has attracted nationally known speakers to the One Health course as well as IEG seminars held weekly during the Spring semester and monthly during the Fall semester.All IEG seminars are advertised to the general public. At each session, active audience participation is encouraged, which has contributed significantly to the success of the course that is now in its 3rd year. Each 2-hour class generally includes two speakers who represent different areas of expertise and perspectives of the One Health spectrum. One Health topics include: Environmental Health/Ecology; Zoonoses and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Food/Water Safety; the Human and Companion Animal Bond; Disease Surveillance, Informatics, and Emergency Preparedness; Comparative Medicine; Risk Communication; and One Health in Policy and Education. Speakers are limited to 20-30 minutes each followed by 30-45 minutes of questions and discussions. Additionally, they are asked to share what motivated them to pursue their One Health-related career. Students report they appreciate how people in diverse disciplines analyze and develop solutions to One Health problems at the local, national, and global level.
Using "Twinning" to Enhance One Health Learning Opportunities
William Hueston, University of Minnesota
Rutch Khattiya, Chiang Mai University
Andrew Tamale, Makerere University
Sylvia Wanzala, Makerere University
“Twinning” has emerged as an institution-building approach that links organizations or educational programs at different levels of advancement. Twinning programs involve exchange of faculty, staff and even students plus the sharing of curriculum and processes in order to benefit each other. Three examples of twinning will be explored: The One Health Residency Program at Makerere University, Uganda and the Veterinary Public Health Residency at the University of Minnesota; The OIE veterinary educational twinning program between Chiang Mai University Thailand and the University of Minnesota to support competency development for veterinary graduates; and Twinning between Makerere University, Uganda and the external collaborators like the African Field Epidemiology Network to enhance a master’s level graduate program. Twinning programs have to overcome organizational and cultural differences while identifying practical steps for institution-building. Small successes and sustainability plans are key to building momentum and allowing for program scale-up. Key to successful twinning programs is the identification of specific objectives, the direct sharing of expertise and personnel, open communications, and a shared commitment to continuous improvement. The presentations will highlight lessons learned in these three twinning initiatives and share best practices for the development of new twinning programs.
Teaching One Health Principles Through Case Studies
Jodi Korich, Texas A&M University
Case studies have been used effectively throughout medical education to provide students with an interactive learning experience. Online cases can be utilized for self-directed learning, as a means of assessment, or to stimulate collaborative problem solving. Because of their flexible nature, case studies can be used to teach One Health principles with relative ease. The Center for Educational Technologies at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences has recently developed an online case authoring tool to facilitate the development of robust, media-rich case studies. This presentation will demonstrate how the tool can be utilized to develop branching case studies for use in classrooms, clinics, and independent study.
11:45 a.m.–12:00 p.m.
University Teaching Hospital Collaboration with Human Medical Facility to Enhance Student Learning at Mississippi State University: A Model for One-Health Delivery
Ron McLaughlin, Mississippi State University
Mississippi State University, College of Veterinary Medicine established a not-for-profit corporation (MSU-CVM-COS, Inc.) to develop and manage private specialty clinics that would enhance teaching and learning for students. This corporation has developed the “Veterinary Specialty Center” (VCS), a referral veterinary specialty practice, located in a human medical facility four miles from the College of Veterinary Medicine. This interdisciplinary collaborative relationship with a prominent medical facility in the region provides significant opportunities to enhance the One Health Initiative at the MSU-CVM. The objectives of this endeavor were to (1) create additional case load and educational opportunities for students, (2) increase exposure of students and house officers to important non-technical skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes, (3) increase the availability of cutting-edge diagnostic and treatment technologies commensurate with services available in modern human medical facilities, and (4) develop a collaborative relationship with a human medical facility to share costs and create opportunities to expand our One Health Initiative.