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The Spectrum of Care Initiative

The AAVMC’s Spectrum of Care Initiative: Developing strategies for veterinary educators to prepare graduates to practice across the spectrum

Veterinary medical education programs are uniquely positioned to develop practitioners’ confidence and competence in practicing across the spectrum of care (SOC). The term “spectrum of care” (SOC) has only recently been defined in the veterinary literature as the wide range of care options that veterinarians can provide (Stull et al., 2018, p. 1386).

With support from The Stanton Foundation, the AAVMC established the Spectrum of Care Initiative (SOCI) in 2021. This initiative is intended to provide the infrastructure, guidance, and assistance for an inclusive and collaborative approach to supporting and enhancing SOC training in veterinary education.

 Spectrum of Care Symposium at AAVMC’s Catalyze 2023 Annual Conference –
Image by Imagine Photography, DC

What is Spectrum of Care Practice?

Veterinarians are trained to offer the most appropriate care for their patients. Those who practice across the spectrum distinguish themselves by their ability to provide a variety of high-quality, evidence-based care options that meet the needs of both the patient and the client (Fingland et al., 2021). A key aspect of spectrum of care practice is tailoring care based on a range of contextual factors that are often unique to each individual case and the client, patient and veterinarian involved in that case (Stull et al., 2018). Influential factors may include client factors (e.g., their goals, values, expectations, beliefs, abilities, and resources), veterinarian factors (e.g., their spectrum of care knowledge and skills), and practice factors (e.g., expertise and availability of equipment), as well as scientific evidence and professional guidelines (Dial & Englar, 2023; Stull et al., 2018).

While spectrum of care as a term is relatively new, practicing across the spectrum is not a novel approach to veterinary practice. Many veterinarians are experienced when it comes to offering a range of care options and discussing their risks and benefits, especially when a client is unwilling or unable to proceed with care due to a variety of factors. While spectrum of care is not the same as access to care, when veterinarians practice broadly across the spectrum, they can help increase the accessibility of veterinary care by providing care options that are responsive to client beliefs, values, financial limitations, expectations, and relationships with the patient. Spectrum of care should also not be conflated with incremental care, which is a case management approach that aims to increase access to care by sequencing care options such that they become progressively more complex and, consequently, costly over time based on the patient’s response to care (Access to Veterinary Care Coalition, 2018; AlignCare, n.d.).

Work by the AAVMC Spectrum of Care Initiative (SOCI) focuses on supporting the development of veterinarians’ competence and confidence in practicing across the spectrum, as these are factors that can be directly influenced by veterinary education programs.


The Spectrum of Care Initiative

With support from The Stanton Foundation, the AAVMC established the SOCI in 2021. This initiative is intended to provide the infrastructure and assistance for a unified and collaborative approach to enhancing and supporting SOC training in veterinary education. The SOCI is spearheaded by the AAVMC SOCI team with the guidance of a Task Force representing a variety of veterinary education stakeholders, including national and international academic leaders, educators, and practitioners. 

The SOCI recognizes that veterinary education programs may be in different stages of implementing SOC training and aims to meet the needs of programs across these stages. For programs that are already incorporating innovative and effective elements of SOC training in their curricula, the initiative seeks to help these programs maintain and/or make continual improvements to their existing SOC training. For programs considering embedding new or additional SOC training into their curriculum, the initiative aims to provide guidance and resources on how to do so.

Click to read: Goals of the Spectrum of Care Initiative


The Spectrum of Care Education Model

The Spectrum of Care Initiative is excited to announce the release of the Spectrum of Care (SOC) Education Model. The SOC Education Model provides an outcomes-focused framework for supporting veterinary medical programs and the broader veterinary education community in preparing graduates to practice across the spectrum of care.

The SOCI Task Force developed the SOC Education Model through an evidence-based process and partnership between veterinary educators and practitioners. It is designed to be applicable across curricular models and learning contexts. The Model can be used to guide the development of new veterinary curricula, as well as guide changes in existing curricula. It is intended to help facilitate and bolster collaboration among all clinicians engaged in preparing graduates for practice.

Click to read: Spectrum of Care Education Model.

Open Comment Period on the SOC Education Model

The SOCI Task Force invites you to participate in an open comment period on the Spectrum of Care (SOC) Education Model. Your feedback is invaluable for helping the Task Force to clarify and enhance the Model. The Task Force encourages you to take this opportunity to share any clarifying questions that you may have about the Model, as well as any insights and suggestions.

How to Participate:

  1. Access the SOC Education Model document.
  2. Review the content thoroughly.
  3. Share your constructive feedback via this form between Thursday, February 1st, 2024, and Monday, April 15th, 2024.

Guidelines for Feedback:

  • Please provide your feedback on the Model in a constructive manner.
  • Please be specific when you make suggestions and provide relevant examples from your experience and/or evidence from the veterinary medical literature.
  • Please use respectful language and be mindful of how your words may come across in writing, given that it is difficult to perceive tone from text.

The open comment period is designed to gather input and perspectives from the veterinary community. All feedback will be considered by the SOCI Task Force and used to inform further clarification and guidance on the Model.

The SOCI Task Force looks forward to your thoughtful contributions and appreciates your commitment to shaping the future of veterinary medical education. Thank you for being a part of this process.


How to Get Involved

Veterinary education programs that would like support with their efforts to adopt, maintain, or expand SOC training into their curriculum can contact the AAVMC SOCI team. Similarly, programs should contact the SOCI team if they would like to share their ideas and experiences with embedding SOC training into their curricula.

Regardless of how far along your program is with integrating and enhancing SOC training, your perspective, experience, and knowledge will be an invaluable contribution to this collaborative approach to preparing graduates to confidently and competently practice across the spectrum of care.

Spectrum of Care Symposium at AAVMC’s Catalyze 2023 Annual Conference –
Image by Imagine Photography, DC

The SOCI Task Force


Liddy Alvarez, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Kevin Ashbran, Newport Animal Hospital 

Heidi Banse, Louisiana State University

Joyce Carnevale, Iowa State University

Stacy Eckman, Texas A&M University

Ryane Englar, University of Arizona

Julie Funk, University of Arizona

Mike Grguric, Mindful Vets & Pet Vet Urgent Care

Carla Huston, Mississippi State University

Kristin Jankowski, Primary Care Practitioner

Deep Khosa, University of Guelph

India Lane, University of Tennessee

Stacy Semevolos, Oregon State University

Mark Stetter, University of California, Davis

Jason Stull, University of Prince Edward Island

Sheena Warman, University of Bristol

Dana Zimmel, University of Florida

Heather Fedesco, AAVMC

Jessica Brodsky, AAVMC